African Landing Memorial References Working DOCUMENT as of 9.12.2023
Fort Monroe Authority
Compiled by Dr. Françoise B Bonell and Jessica Meadows, M.A.T

The following research resources are an ever-growing list as we expand on our knowledge in the journey to creating the African Landing Memorial. If you have done your own research and would like to help contribute to this list, please reach out to us at

Articles and Books

Austin, Beth. 1619: Virginia’s First Africans, December 2018.

Bernhard, Virginia. “Bermuda and Virginia in the Seventeenth Century: A Comparative View.” Journal of Social History 19, no. 1 (1985): 57–70.

Brewer, James H. “Negro Property Owners in Seventeenth-Century Virginia.” The William and Mary Quarterly 12, no. 4 (1955): 575–80.

Cancio-Donlebún Ballvé, J. Á. (2021). The King of Spain’s Slaves in St. Augustine, Florida (1580–1618). Estudios del Observatorio / Observatorio Studies, 74, pp. 1-81.

COOMBS, JOHN C. “‘Others Not Christians in the Service of the English’: Interpreting the Status of Africans and African Americans in Early Virginia.” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 127, no. 3 (2019): 212–38.

John C. Coombs. “The Phases of Conversion: A New Chronology for the Rise of Slavery in Early Virginia.” The William and Mary Quarterly 68, no. 3 (2011): 332–60.

CRAVEN, WESLEY FRANK. “TWENTY NEGROES TO JAMESTOWN IN 1619?” The Virginia Quarterly Review 47, no. 3 (1971): 416–20.

Fromont, Cécile. “Dance, Image, Myth, and Conversion in the Kingdom of Kongo, 1500—1800.” African Arts 44, no. 4 (2011): 52–63.

Goucher, Candice L. “Iron Sails the Seas: A Maritime History of African Diaspora Iron Technology.” Canadian Journal of Latin American and Caribbean Studies / Revue Canadienne Des Études Latino-Américaines et Caraïbes 38, no. 2 (2013): 179–96.

Goucher, Candice L. “Iron Sails the Seas: A Maritime History of African Diaspora Iron.

Heath, Barbara J. “Cowrie Shells, Global Trade, and Local Exchange: Piecing Together the Evidence for Colonial Virginia.” Historical Archaeology 50, no. 2 (2016): 17–46.

Herbert, Eugenia W. “Portuguese Adaptation to Trade Patterns Guinea to Angola (1443-1640).” African Studies Review 17, no. 2 (September 1974): 411-23.

Heywood, Linda M. “Slavery and Its Transformation in the Kingdom of Kongo: 1491-1800.” The Journal of African History 50, no. 1 (2009): 1–22.

HEYWOOD, LINDA M., and JOHN K. THORNTON. “In Search of the 1619 African Arrivals: Enslavement and Middle Passage.” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 127, no. 3 (2019): 200–211.

Kea, R. A. “Firearms and Warfare on the Gold and Slave Coasts from the Sixteenth to the Nineteenth Centuries.” The Journal of African History 12, no. 2 (1971): 185–213.

Khan, Aisha. “Islam, Vodou, and the Making of the Afro-Atlantic.” NWIG: New West-Indian Guide/Nieuwe West-Indische Gids 86, no. ½ (2012): 29-54.

Mallipeddi, Ramesh. “‘A Fixed Melancholy’: Migration, Memory, and the Middle Passage.” The Eighteenth Century 55, no. 2/3 (2014): 235–53.

Miller, Joseph C. “Nzinga of Matamba in a New Perspective.” The Journal of African History, vol. 16, no. 2, 1975, pp. 201–216. JSTOR,

Morgan, Edmund S. “The First American Boom: Virginia 1618 to 1630.” The William and Mary Quarterly 28, no. 2 (1971): 170–98.

NEWBY-ALEXANDER, CASSANDRA. “The Arrival of the First Africans to English North America.” The Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 127, no. 3 (2019): 186–99.

O’Malley, Gregory E. “Beyond the Middle Passage: Slave Migration from the Caribbean to North America, 1619-1807.” The William and Mary Quarterly 66, no. 1 (2009): 125–72.

Pearce, Laurie E. “African-American Archaeology Network,” Winter 1993.

Ribeiro da Silva, Filipa. “Crossing Empires: Portuguese, Sephardic, and Dutch Business Networks in the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1580-1674.” The Americas 68, no. 1 (July 2011): 7-32.

Sluiter, Engel. “New Light on the ‘20. and Odd Negroes’ Arriving in Virginia, August 1619.” The William and Mary Quarterly 54, no. 2 (1997): 395–98.

Thornton, John. “The African Experience of the ’20. and Odd Negroes’ Arriving in Virginia in 1619.” The William and Mary Quarterly 55, no. 3 (July 1998): 421-34.

THORNTON, JOHN K. “The Kingdom of Kongo and the Thirty Years’ War.” Journal of World History 27, no. 2 (2016): 189–213.

Vaughan, Alden T. “Blacks in Virginia: A Note on the First Decade.” The William and Mary Quarterly 29, no. 3 (1972): 469–78.

Walsh, Lorena S. “The Transatlantic Slave Trade and Colonial Chesapeake Slavery.” OAH Magazine of History 17, no. 3 (2003): 11–15.

Baptist, Edward E. The Half Has Never Been Told: Slavery and the Making of American Capitalism, Basic Books, 2014

Cavazzi, Giovanni Antonio da Montecuccolo. Istorica descrizione de tre regni Congo, Matamba ed Angola. (Bologna, 1687). French translation, Jean Baptiste Labat, Relation historique de l’Éthiopie. 5 vols. (Paris, 1732) [a free translation with additional materials added]. Modern Portuguese translation, Graziano Maria Saccardo da Leguzzano, ed. Francisco Leite de Faria, Descrição histórica dos tres reinos Congo, Matamba e Angola. 2 vols. (Lisbon, 1965).

Fairfax, Colita Nichols, Ed..The African Experience in Colonial Virginia: Essays on the 1619 Arrival and the Legacy of Slavery, McFarland & Co. 2021

Heywood, Linda and John K. Thornton, Central Africans, Atlantic Creoles, and the Making of the Americas, 1580–1660 (Cambridge, 2007)

Heywood, Linda M. Njinga of Angola: Africa’s Warrior Queen. Harvard University Press, 2017

Horn, James. 1619 Jamestown and the Forging of American Democracy, Basic Books, 2018

Kenny Mann, West Central Africa: Kongo, Ndongo (African Kingdoms of the Past). Parsippany, NJ: Dillon Press, 1996

Knight, F.C. Working the Diaspora: The Impact of African Labor on the Anglo-American World, 1650-1850. New York University Press, 2010.

Knight, K.L. Unveiled, The Twenty & Odd. Documenting the First Africans in England’s America 1619-1625 and Beyond

Murphy, Ric. Arrival of the First Africans in Virginia. Arcadia Publishing, 2020

To download a printable PDF version, use the following link

African Landing Memorial Bibliography and Resources